Hektoen International

A Journal of Medical Humanities

Tag: Wladimir Alonso

  • The first clinical trial and controlled biological experiments

    Wladimir J. Alonso Steven Zhixiang Zhou Cynthia Schuck-Paim Sao Paulo, Brazil & London, UK   Nanjing, capital of China at the time of the experiments Photography by Ryuch Although over a millennium ago some clinicians already appreciated that fair¬†comparisons are needed to infer causality about the effects of medical treatments,1 it has been widely accepted…