Tag Archives: Mesopotamia

Oaths, codes, and charters in medicine over the ages

L. J. Sandlow Chicago, Illinois, USA   Introduction Medical oaths are solemn pledges taken by medical students as they complete their training and enter the practice of medicine. Oaths and codes summarize the profession’s mission to protect and restore human health. Taking an oath is the hallmark of a physician’s commitment to his profession. Present in […]

History of nephrology: beginnings

George Dunea Chicago, Illinois, United States   Introduction In the second half of the 20th century nephrology became a fully-fledged specialty owing largely to the development of renal biopsy, dialysis, and kidney transplantation.1 Yet the seeds of these great advances were sown centuries earlier, based on the work and observations of scientists and clinicians dating […]