Tag Archives: Mesopotamia

History of nephrology: beginnings

George Dunea Hektoen Institute, Chicago, Illinois, United States (Fall 2012)   Introduction In the second half of the 20th century nephrology became a fully-fledged specialty owing largely to the development of renal biopsy, dialysis, and kidney transplantation.1 Yet the seeds of these great advances were sown centuries earlier, based on the work and observations of […]