Tag Archives: Franco-Prussian War

JLW Thudichum: neglected “Father of neurochemistry”

JMS Pearce Hull, England, United Kingdom   Fig 1. Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Thudichum. Photo. National Library of Medicine. Public domain. Knowledge of diseases of the nervous system reflects an understanding of the basic sciences of neural mechanisms and organization. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Nobel prizewinners Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón […]

Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor

Otto von Bismarck was born into a family of Junkers in Brandenburg in 1815. Becoming prime minister of Prussia at the age of forty-seven in 1862, he remained in power for twenty-eight years. During this time he united Germany under Prussian hegemony; defeated Denmark, Austria, and France in three wars; annexed Schleswig-Holstein, Alsace, and Lorraine […]

Edgar Degas’ light sensitivity and its effects on his art

Zeynel Karcioglu Virginia, United States   Author and wife in front of The Alexander and Bucephalus at The National Gallery in Washington DC, contrasting the gleaming white of Alexander’s chiton with their dark clothing. The celebrated nineteenth century French painter Hilaire-Germain Edgar Degas was born in Paris in 1834 to a Creole mother from New […]