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LATIN AMERICA
Published on September 13, 2019
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THE FIRST TEN HOSPITALS ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT

Marco Antonio Ayala-García

The first hospital in the Americas was built by Fray Nicolás de Ovando from 1503 to 1508 in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti). Named Hospital de San Nicolás de Bari (I), it was located in Santo Domingo de Guzmán. Its personnel included a medical director, an agent, an internist, a chaplain, and six servants.1 Nowadays, the remains of this facility are the silent witnesses of its past and of the attention of Spain to healthcare in the colonies.

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A LESSON IN HORIZONTALITY:
HOSPITAL SAN VICENTE DE PAUL

Moisés Enghelberg

DANIEL CARRION AND HIS DISEASE

George Dunea

HOSPITAL MUNICIPAL SEBASTIAO
MARTIN ALVES, LENCOIS, BAHIA

Eleanor Stanford

 

 

THE VAN BUREN HOSPITAL

Carlos Astudillo

GORGAS HOSPITAL, ANCON, PANAMA

W. Paul McKinney

RENE FAVALORO

Earl C. Smith

 

 

ART, CRISTOBAL ROJAS, AND TUBERCULOSIS: A LATIN AMERICAN CULTURAL EXPERIENCE

Maria S. Landaeta,
Aldo L. Schenone,
Gregory W. Rutecki

Cristóbal Rojas was born in Cúa, Venezuela in 1858. According to Alfredo Boulton, his inclination toward art may have been influenced by his grandfather, a sculptor. His father, a physician, also liked to paint.1 However, Cristóbal’s early exposure to art was soon replaced by overwhelming responsibilities. “After his father’s untimely death in 1870, young Cristóbal, twelve years old, became the new head of a financially struggling family.”1-3 He was following a tradition customary in Latin American families which requires the eldest male to accept the mantle of responsibility after the father dies.4 In order to support his relatives, Rojas worked at a tobacco factory.1 However, art would reappear in a most unexpected way. As Barbay explains, “In 1878 an earthquake destroyed Rojas’ home, a tragedy that led to his paintings of the ruins in Cúa.”1 The works betray his untrained hand and lack perspective. However, there is attention to detail, use of surrounding natural elements, and a preference for coloring as opposed to delineation.1 The complete artist awaited proper training.

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